On this day in history, July 21, 356 BC... A man named Herostratus set fire to the wooden roof beams of the Artemision in Ephesus (in present-day Turkey). The Artemision, or Temple of Artemis, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Archaeological evidence suggests that the first temple was originally constructed in the 8th century BC with some believing that it was the earliest Greek temple surrounded by colonnades. It was destroyed by a flood a century later. The second temple was sponsored in part by Croesus, king of Lydia, and was re-build sometime around 550 BC. Herostratus was seeking fame at any cost and set the temple on fire, thus the term herostratic fame. The Ephesians sentenced him to death and instituted a form of damnatio memoriae upon his name. The destruction of the second temple coincided with the birth of Alexander the Great. Years later, Alexander offered to pay for the temple's rebuilding but the Ephesians refused. The decision to rebuild came after Alexander's death, and work began around 323 BC. The temple was destroyed for the third and final time in 286 AD in a raid by the Goths.